A review of the anthiine fish genus Pseudanthias (Perciformes: Serranidae) of the western Indian Ocean, with description of a new species and a key to the species

Phillip C. Heemstra and K. V. Akhilesh

aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, pp. 121-164, Volume 18, Issue 3 – 15 July 2012


Nineteen species of the serranid fish genus Pseudanthias Bleeker are recognized in the western Indian Ocean (including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf): Pseudanthias bicolor, P. bimaculatus, P. bimarginatus, P. connelli, P. conspicuus, P. cooperi, P. evansi, P. gibbosus, P. heemstrai, P. hypselosoma, P. ignitus, P. lunulatus, P. marcia, P. pulcherrimus, P. squamipinnis, P. taeniatus, P. townsendi, P. unimarginatus and Pseudanthias pillai sp. nov. is described from the south-west coast of India. Pseudanthias gibbosus (Klunzinger) is resurrected from the synonymy of P. squamipinnis and is shown to have a precocious male morph. Discovery of three colour morphs for P. gibbosus is an example of the complicated reproductive systems of these species. Diagnoses, distributions, illustrations and a key to all the species of Pseudanthias in the western Indian Ocean are given.

Full Text | PDF (1,7 MB)


AHLSTROM, E. H., BUTLER, J. L. & SUMIDA, B. Y. 1976. Pelagic stromateoid fishes (Pisces, Perciformes) of the eastern Pacific: kinds, distributions and early life histories and observations on five of these from the northwest Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science 26: 285-402.

ALLEN, G. R. 2005. Appendix 4, List of the reef fishes of Madagascar. In: A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Northwest Madagascar. (Eds McKenna, S. A. & Allen, G. R.) Conservation International, Washington, D.C. Bulletin of the Rapid Assessment 31: 102-124.

ALLEN G. R. & STARCK, W. A. 1982. The anthiid fishes of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with the description of a new species. Revue française d’Aquariologie 9 (2): 47-56.

ALLEN, G. R. & STEENE, R. C. 1987. Reef Fishes of the Indian Ocean. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, U.S.A., 240 pp.

BLEEKER, P. 1857. Achtste bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Amboina. Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae 2: 1-102.

BLEEKER, P. 1871. Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néèrlandaises, publié sous les auspices du Gouvernement colonial néèrlandais. Vol. 7. Percoides I, Priacanthiformes, Serraniformes, Grammisteiformes, Percaeformes, Datniaeformes. 1-126, Pls. 279-320.

BLEEKER, P. 1873a. Révision des espèces indo-archipélagiques du groupe des Anthianini. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 4: 155-169.

BLEEKER, P. 1873b. Sur les especès indo-archipélagiques d’Odontanthias et de Pseudopriacanthus. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 4: 235-240.

BLEEKER, P. 1878. Quatrième mémoire sur la faune ichthyologique de la Nouvelle-Guinée. Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles 133: 35-66, Pls 2-3.

BLOCH, M. E. 1792. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin. Naturgeschichte der Ausländischen Fische 6: i-xii + 1-126, Pls. 289-323.

BOULENGER, G. A. 1895. Catalogue of the Perciform Fishes in the British Museum, Second Edition, LondonVol. 1: 1-394.

BOULENGER, G. A. 1897. Descriptions of new fishes fromthe Mekran Coast, Persia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 6, 20: 420-422.

CONNELL, A. D. 1993. New records of fish species for South African water. African Wildlife 47 (5): 199.

DEBELIUS, H. 1993. Indian Ocean Tropical Fish Guide. Ikan- Unterwasserarchiv. Frankfurt, 321 pp.

FIELD, R. F. 2005. Reef Fishes UAE and Gulf of Oman. Motivate Publishing, Dubai, 144 pp.

FIELD, R. F. & FIELD, M. 1998. Reef Fishes of the Red Sea A Guide to Identification. Kegan Paul International, London, 192 pp.

FOURMANOIR, P. & GUÉZÉ, P. 1967. Part 3, Sept. espèces intéréssantes trouvees récemment dans les eaux Malgaches et Réunionnaises. Cahiers Orstom Oceanographie 5(1): 47-58.

FOWLER, H. W. 1935. South African fishes received from Mr. H. W. Bell-Marley in 1935. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87: 361-408.

FRICKE, R. 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mau ritius, Rodriguez). An annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, 759 pp.

FRICKE, R., MULOCHAU, T., DURVILLE, P., CHABANET, P. & TESSIER, E. 2009. Annotated checklist of the fish species (Pisces) of La Réunion, including a red list of threatened and declining species. Stuttgarter Beiträzur Naturkunde A, Neue Serie 2: 10168.

GUERRERO, R. D. & SHELTON, W. L. 1974. An acetocarmine squash method for sexing juvenile fishes. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 36: 56.

GÜNTHER, A. 1872. Report on several collections of fishes recently obtained for the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society London (1871): 652-675.

HEEMSTRA, P. C. 1973. Anthias conspicuus sp. nova (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Indian Ocean, with comments on related species. Copeia 1973 (2): 200-210.

HEEMSTRA, P. C. & HEEMSTRA, E. 2004. Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. NISC and SAIAB. i-xxiv + 1-488 pp.

HEEMSTRA, E., HEEMSTRA, P., SMALE, M., HOOPER,T. & PELICIER, D. 2004. Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues. Journal of Natural History 38: 3315-3344.

HEEMSTRA, P. C. & RANDALL, J. E. 1986. Family No. 166: Serranidae. In: Smiths’ Sea Fishes. (Eds Smith, M. M. & Heemstra, P. C.): 509-537. Macmillan South Africa, Johannesburg, 1047 pp.

HERRE, A. W. C. T. 1927. A new genus and three new species of Philippine fishes. Philippine Journal of Science 32 (3): 413-419, Pls 1-2.

HERRE, A. W. C. T. 1955. Remarks on the fish genus Mirolabrichthys, with description of a new species. Copeia 1955 (3): 223-225.

HERRE, A. W. C. T. & MONTALBAN, H. R. 1927. Mirolabrichthys tuka sp. nov. in A new genus and three new species of Philippine fishes. Philippine Journal of Science 32 (3): 413-415, Pl. 1.

HUBBS, C. L. & LAGLER, K. F. 1964. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 213 pp.

JONES, S. & KUMARAN, M. 1970. New records of fishes from the seas around India. Part 6. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 10 (2) [1968]: 321-331.

JORDAN, D. S. & TANAKA, S. 1927. Notes on new and rare fishes of the fauna of Japan. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 17 (3-4) (12): 385-392, Pl. 34.

KAMOHARA, T. 1954. Eleven additions to the fish fauna of Prov. Tosa, including one new species of the family Serranidae. Research Reports of Kochin University 3 (26): 1-6.

KATAYAMA, M. 1978. The anthiine fish, Pseudanthias taeniatus, from Hachijo Island and the coast of Izu, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 25 (3): 216-218.

KATAYAMA, M. & AMAOKA, K. 1986. Two new anthiine fishes from the Eastern tropical Atlantic. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 27 (3): 213-222.

KHALAF, M. A. & DISI, A. M. 1997. Fishes of the Gulf of Aqaba. Marine Science Station, Aqaba, Jordan, 252 pp.

KISHIMOTO, H., KATAYAMA, M., KOHNO, H. & TANIZAWA, M. 1983. Fish fauna of Iriomote-jima, Ryukyu Islands, IV, Serranidae (Anthiinae). Bulletin Institute Oceanic Research & Development, Tokai University 1983, 5: 33-44.

KLUNZINGER, C. B. 1884. Die Fische des Rothen Meeres. Eine kritische Revision mit Bestimmungstabellen. 1. Teil. Acanthopteriveri Owen. Stuttgart, i-ix + 1-133, Pls 1-13.

KOTTHAUS, A. 1973 (November). Fische des Indischen Ozeans Ergebnisse der ichthyologischen Untersuchungen während der Expedition des Forschungsschiffes ”Meteor” in den Indischen Ozean, Oktober 1964 bis Mai 1965, A. Systematischer Teil, X Percomorphi (3). Meteor Forschungs Ergebisse Reihe D, 16: 17-32.

KUITER, R. H. & DEBELIUS, H. 2007. World Atlas of Marine Fishes. Ikan-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany, 728 pp.

KRUPP, F. & PAULUS, T. 1991. First record of the coral-reef fish Pseudanthias fasciatus (Kamohara, 1954) from the Red Sea (Perciformes: Serranidae). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 12: 388-392.

KUITER, R. H. 1998. Photo Guide to Fishes of the Maldives. Atoll Editions, Apollo Bay, Victoria, Australia, 257 pp.

KUITER, R. H. 1990. Pseudanthias bimaculatus x Pseudanthias pleurotaenia, a hybrid anthiid fish from Indonesia. Revue française d’Aquariologie 17 (1990) 1: 17-18.

KUITER, R. H. 2004. Basslets, Hamlets and their Relatives, a Comprehensive Guide to Selected Serranidae and Plesiopidae. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, U.K. 216 pp.

LUBBOCK, R. & ALLEN, G. R. 1978. A distinctive new Anthias (Teleostei: Serranidae) from the western Pacific. Records of the Western Australian Museum 6 (2): 259-268.

MANILO, L. G. & BOGORODSKY, S. V. 2003. Journal of Ichthyology Supplement 43: 75-149.

PETERS, W. C. H. 1855. Übersicht der in Mossambique beobachteten Seefische. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaft zu Berlin 1855: 428-466.

RANDALL, J. E. 1979. A review of the serranid fish genus Anthias of the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Contributions in Science. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 302: 1-13.

RANDALL, J. E. 1995. Coastal Fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 439 pp.

RANDALL, J. E. 2011. Two new serranid fishes of the genus Pseudanthias from the Western Indian Ocean. Smithiana Bulletin 13: 79-85.

RANDALL, J. E. & ANDERSON, R. C. 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldive Islands. J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Ichthyological Bulletin 59: 1-47.

RANDALL, J. E. & HEEMSTRA, P. C. 2006. Review of the Indo-Pacific fishes of the genus Odontanthias (Serranidae: Anthiinae), with descriptions of two new species and a related genus. Indo-Pacific Fishes 38: 1-32.

RANDALL, J. E. & HOOVER, J. P. 1993. Pseudanthias marcia, a new serranid fish from Oman. Revue Français d’Aquariologie 1993 (20): 47-52.

RANDALL, J. E. & HUTOMO, M. 1988. Redescription of the Indo-Pacific serranid fish Pseudanthias bimaculatus (Smith). Copeia 1988 (3): 669-673.

RANDALL, J. E. & LUBBOCK, R. 1981. A revision of the serranid fishes of the subgenus Mirolabrichthys (Anthiinae: Anthias), with descriptions of five new species. Contributions in Science Natural History Museum Los Angeles County 333: 1-27.

RANDALL, J. E. & PYLE, R. L. 2001. Four new serranid fishes of the anthiine genus Pseudanthias from the South Pacific. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 49 (1): 19-34.

REGAN, C. T. 1902. On the fishes from the Maldive Islands. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes. Being the Account of the Work Carried on and of the Collections Made by an Expedition During the Years 1899 and 1900 1 (3): 272-281.

SCHUHMACHER, H., KRUPP, F. & RANDALL, J. E. 1989. Pseudanthias heemstrai, a new species of anthiine fish (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 10: 338-346.

SMITH, J. L. B. 1954. Two interesting new anthiid fishes from East Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) 7 (73): 1-6.

SMITH, J. L. B. 1955. The fishes of the family Anthiidae of the Western Indian Ocean. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) 8 (89): 337-350.

SMITH, J. L. B. 1961. Fishes of the family Anthiidae from the Western Indian Ocean. J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Ichthyological Bulletin 21: 359-369, Pl. 34-35.

SMITH, J. L. B. 1965. The sea fishes of southern Africa. Central News Agency, Ltd., Cape Town, 580 pp., 111 pls.

TANAKA, S. 1917. Six new species of Japanese fishes. Dobutsugaku Zasshi [= Zoological Magazine] Tokyo 29 (345): 198-201.

TANAKA, S. 1918. Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan including Riukiu Islands, Bonin Islands, Formosa, Kurile Islands, Korea, and southern Sakhalin. Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan 29: 515-538, Pls. 138-139.

TERASHIMA, H., MOSAHEB, J. I., CHIRANJIWA, N., PAUPIAH, C. N. & CHINEAH, V. 2001. Field Guide to Coastal Fishes of Mauritius. Albion Fisheries Research Centre, Ministry of Fisheries, Albion, Petit Riviere, Mauritius, 191 pp.

VAN DER ELST, R. P. 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of Southern Africa. C. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 398 pp.

WINTERBOTTOM, R., EMERY, A. R. & HOLM, E. 1989. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. Royal Ontario Museum Life Science Contributions 145: 1-226.

WINTERBOTTOM, R. & ANDERSON, R. C. 1997. A revised checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Ichthyological Bulletin 66: 1-28.

Previous post

Book review - The Banggai Cardinalfish

Next post

Testing for camouflage of the Brazilian seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) using the territorial damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier) (Pomacentridae)

The Author



No Comment

Leave a reply