Morphological development and growth of Bunni, Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (Günther, 1874), larvae reared in the laboratory
Sara Ahmadi, Mojgan Khodadadi, Ammar Salehi Farsani, Bahareh Samadi Kuchaksaraei and Hamed Mousavi-Sabet
aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, pp. 99-108, Volume 19, Issue 2 – 26 April 2013
The early development of the endemic cyprinid, Bunni Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (Günther, 1874) larvae has been determined according to morphological changes and total length, standard length, head length, thickness of larvae, eye diameter and snout length measurements. The results showed that the initial period of Bunni larval life can be divided into two phases: early stages dependent upon endogenous nutrient sources, and a second phase of stages dependent upon exogenous food sources. In the first three days of larvae development there was a gradual yolk sac reduction after which there was a switch to exogenous feeding. From the fourth to eleventh day, the final development of heart, gill, air bladder, fins and intestine were observed. The newly hatched larvae and the fifteen day old larvae were 6.26±0.14 and 8.35±0.17 mm in mean total length (TL), respectively. The mouth opened 2-4 days after hatching (DAH). The larvae started to swim actively within 2-3 days and the yolk sac had been totally absorbed at 4-5 DAH. Notochord flexion began at 11 DAH. Compare to other cyprinids, the larval development of Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi is similar to other Mesopotamichthys species.
ABDOLI, A. 2000. The Inland Water Fishes of Iran. Iranian Museum of Nature and Wildlife, Tehran: 378 pp. [In Persian]
AL-HAZZA, R. & HUSSEIN, A. 2007. Larval development of Himri, Barbus luteus (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) Reared in the Laboratory. Turkish Journal of Zoology 31: 27-33.
AL-NASIH, M. H. 1992. Preliminary observation related to the culture of Barbus sharpeyi (Bunni). Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 7: 69-78.
BEHZADI, S. 1991. A study on embryonic development stages of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum). MSc thesis. Azad University. Tehran Shomal Branch: 15-22.
BLAXTER, J. H. S. & HEMPEL, G. 1966. Utilization of the yolk sac by herring larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 46: 219-234.
BAXTER, J. H. S. 1988. Eggs and larvae. In: Fish physiology. (Eds. Hoar, W. S. & Randall, D. J): 17-48. Academic press, New York.
BOLKER, J. A. & HILL, C. R. 2000. Pigmentation development in hatchery-reared flatfishes. Journal of Fish Biology 56: 1029-1052.
BUKE, E., AYEKIN, B. & IMAM, H. 2003. (unpublished data). The research project on the culture potential of new fish species as alternative for sea bass and sea bream. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Agricultural Research.
CALTA, M. 1996. Early development and gill function in freshwater fish. Ph. D. Thesis. The University of Nottingham. Nottingham. UK.
CALTA, M. 2000. Morphological development and growth of chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L. ), larvae. Applied Ichthyology 16: 83-85.
CETTA, C. M. & CAPUZZO, J. M. 1982. Physiological and biochemical aspects of embryonic and larval development of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Marine Biology 71: 327-337.
CHRISTENSEN, M. N. & KORSGAARD, B. 1999. Protein metabolism, growth and pigmentation patterns during metamorphosis of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) larvae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 237: 225-241.
CONIDES, A. J. & GLAMUZINA, B. 2001. Study on the early larval development and growth of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus with emphasis on the mass mortalities observed during this phase. Scientia Marina 63 (3): 193-200.
CUVIER-PEREZ, A. & KESTMONT, P. 2002. Development of some digestive enzymes in Eurasian perch larvae Perca fluviatilis. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 24: 279-285.
DILER, I. & DILEK, K. 2002. Significance of pigmentation and use in aquaculture. Turkish Journal of Fishery and Aquatatic Science 2: 97-99.
FIRAT, K. S. & COBAN, D. 2003. The effect of light intensity on early life development of the common dentex (Dentex dentex) larvae. Aquaculture Research 34: 1-6.
FIRAT, K., SAKA, S. & COBAN, D. 2005. The cleavage and embryonic phase of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) eggs. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 22: 205-207.
FUIMAN, L. A. & WEBB, P. W. 1988. Ontogeny of routine swimming activity and performance in Zebra danio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Animal Behaviour 36: 250-261.
HUXLEY, J. S. 1932. Problems of relative growth. Methuen & Co., London.
KAMLER, E. 2002. Ontogeny of yolk-feeding fish: An Ecological Perspective. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12: 79-103
KIMMEL, C., BALLARD, W., ULLMANN, B. & SCHMILLNG, T. 1995. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 203: 205-310.
KLAOUDATES, S., TSEVIS, N. & CONIDES, A. 1990. Energy sources during early larval development of the Eurropean sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L. ). Aquaculture 87: 361-372.
KOHNO, H., HARA, S. & TAKI, Y. 1986. Early larval development of the sea bass Lates calcarifer with emphasis on the transition of energy sources. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish 52 (10): 1719-1725.
LASKER, R., FEDER, H. M., THEILACHER, G. H. & MAY, R. C. 1970. Feeding, growth and survival of Engraulis mordax larvae reared in the laboratory. Marine Biology 5: 345-353.
LIEW, H. J., AMBAK, M. A. & ABOL-MUNAFI, A. B. 2006. Embryonic development of clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris under laboratory conditions. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 1: 64-73.
MARAMMAZI, Gh. 1995. Ichthyology report on Shadegan Marsh. Southern Iran Aquaculture Fishery Research Centre, Ahvaz. 63 pp. [In Persian]
MIHELAKAKIS, A., YOSHIMATSU, T. & TSOLKAS, C. 2001. Spawning in captivity and early life history of cultured red porgy, Pagrus pagrus. Aquaculture 199: 333-352.
MUKHAYSIN, A. A. & JAWAD, L. A. 2012. Larval development of the cyprinid fish Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 7: 307-319.
NAJAFPUR, N. 1996. Final report of project of identification of some fresh water fishes of Khuzestan. Iranian fisheries research organization 1-96.
NAKATANI, K. 2001. Ovos e larvas de peixes de agues doce: desenvolvimento e manual de identificacao. Maringa: Eduem, 378 p.
NIKPEI, P. M. 1996. Final report of project of biologic study of Barbus grupus and B. sharpeyi. Iranian Fisheries Research Organization: pages 1-10, 52-64.
PARANDAVAR, H. 2004. A Study on embryonic development stages of South Caspian stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus). International Research Institute of Sturgeons. IFRO publications. pp. 111.
PENAZ, M. 2001. A general framework of fish ontogeny: A review of the ongoing debate. Folia Zoologica 50: 241-256.
PYKA, J., BARTEL, R., SZCZERBOWSKI, J. A. & EPLER, P. 2001. Reproduction of gattan (Barbus xanthopterus), shabbout (Barbus grypus) and Bunni (Barbus sharpeyi) and rearing stocking material of these species. Archives of Polish Fisheries 9 (Suppl. 1): 235-246.
REYNALTE-TATAJE, D., ZANIBONI-FIHOL, E. & MUELBERT, B. 2001. Stages of the embryonic development of the Leporinus macrocephalus. Department of Aquaculture, University of Federal of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina Brasil. pp. 824 -826.
SADO, T. & KIMURA, S. 2002. Developmental morphology of the cyprinid fish, Candidia barbatus. Ichthyological Research 49: 350-354.
SADO, T. & KIMURA, S. 2005. Developmental morphology of the cyprinid fish Tanichthys albonubes. Ichthyological Research 52: 386-391.
SADO, T. & KIMURA, S. 2006. Developmental morphology of the cyprinid fish, Inlecypris auropurpureus. Ichthyological Research 53: 34-40.
SARVI-GHISABADI, A. 2008. A study on embryonic development stages of Acanthopterus latus. MSc thesis. Azad University. Sciences and Research Branch: 4-14.
SATO, Y. N., FENERICH-VERANI, A. P. O., NUNER, H. P. & GODINHO, J. R. 2003. Padores reprodutivevos de peixes da bacia do sao Francisco. In: Aguas, peixes e pescadores do Sao Francisco das Minas Gerais. (Eds. H. P. Godinho & A. L. Godinho): 224-268. Belo Horizonte.
SCHMIDT, K. & STARCK, M. 2004. Developmental variability during early embryonic development of Zebra fish (Danio rerio). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 302B (5): 446-457.
SHAFIZADEH, S. 1993. A study on embryonic development stages of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). International Research Institute of Sturgeons. 1-2 pp.
SOLBAKKEN, J. S., NORBERG, B., WATANAB K. & PITTMAN, K. 1999. Thyroxine as a mediator of metamorphosis of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 56: 53-65.
SZYPULA, J., EPLER, P., BARTEL, R. & SZCZERBOWKI, J. A. 2001. Age and growth of fish in lakes Tharthar, Razzazah, and Habbaniya. Archives of Polish Fisheries 9 (Supll.1): 185-197.
TACHIHARA, K., & KAWAGUCHI, K. 2003. Morphological development of eggs, larvae and juveniles of laboratoryreared Ryukyu-ayu Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis. Fisheries Science 69: 323-330.
URHO, L. 2002. Characters of larvae-what are they? Folia Zoolica 51: 161-186.
WAKELING, J. M., KEMP, K. M. & JOHNSTON, I. A. 1999. The biomechanics of fast-starts during ontogeny in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 3057-3067.