The plates in Holbrook’s Ichthyology of South Carolina, 1860
William D. Anderson, Jr.
aqua International Journal of Ichthyology, pp. 173-218, Volume 20 issue 4, 15 October 2014
Best known for North American Herpetology, John Edwards Holbrook (1794-1871) also published several ichthyological works, the most important of which was his Ichthyology of South Carolina (1855b, 1860). Because of their rarity, reproductions of the plates from the 1860 edition are presented herein, along with comments on the fishes illustrated, Holbrook’s artists, his other ichthyological work, and his herpetological contributions. In order to put his efforts in perspective, I also include a biographical sketch of Holbrook.
ADLER, K. 1976. New genera and species described in Holbrook’s “North American Herpetology.” Pp. xxix-xliii. In: Holbrook, J. E. North American herpetology. [Facsimile reprint edition, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Athens, Ohio.]
ADLER, K. Ed. 1989. Contributions to the history of herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Contributions to Herpetology, No. 5. Oxford, Ohio. Pp. 1-202.
AGASSIZ, L. 1857-1862. Contributions to the natural history of the United States of America. Four vols. Little, Brown & Company, Boston.
AGASSIZ, L. 1872. Eulogy on Dr. J. E. Holbrook. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 14: 347-351.
ANDERSON, W. D., Jr. 2003. John Edwards Holbrook’s Senckenberg plates and the fishes they portray. Archives of Natural History 30 (1): 1-12, 7 figs.
ANDERSON, W. D., Jr. 2012. John Edwards Holbrook’s illustrations of fishes in the Bibliothèque centrale, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. Archives of Natural History 39 (1): 1-6, 4 figs.
ANDERSON, W. D., Jr. & STEPHENS, L. D. 2002. John Edwards Holbrook (1794-1871) and his Southern Ichthyology (1847-1848). Archives of Natural History 29 (3): 317-332, 5 figs.
AUDUBON, J. J. & BACHMAN, J. 1845-1854. The viviparous quadrupeds of North America. Three vols. J. J. Audubon & V. G. Audubon, New York.
AUDUBON, J. J. & BACHMAN, J. 1849-1854. The quadrupeds of North America. Three vols. V. G. Audubon, New York.
BARTRAM, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, east and west Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws. Containing an account of the soil and natural productions of those regions; together with observations on the manners of the indians. James and Johnson, Philadelphia, pp. i-xxvi + 1-520 + index. (Cambridge Library Collection, Cambridge University Press, New York, digitally printed version, 2011.)
BLUM, A. S. 1993. Picturing nature: American nineteenthcentury zoological illustration. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. i-xxxiv + 1-403.
BOSCHUNG, H. T., JR. & MAYDEN, R. L. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Books, Washington, pp. i-xviii + 1-736.
CARPENTER, K. E. Ed. 2003. The living marine resources of the western central Atlantic. Vols. 2 and 3: Bony fishes. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. [Dated 2002, but published in 2003.]
CLARK, H. L. 1960. Charles Frédéric Girard. P. 319. In: Dictionary of American biography 4, part 1. Eds. Johnson, A. and Malone, D. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.
COURTENAY, W. R., Jr. 1961. Western Atlantic fishes of the genus Haemulon (Pomadasyidae): Systematic status and juvenile pigmentation. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 11 (1): 66-149.
FALK, P. H. Ed. 1999. Who was who in American Art, 1564-1975: 400 years of artists in America. Three vols. Sound View Press, Madison, Connecticut.
FRABLE, B. W., BALDWIN, C. C., LUTHER, B. M. & WEIGHT, L. A. 2013. A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829). Fishery Bulletin 111 (2): 122-146.
GILL, T. 1864. Review of Holbrook’s ichthyology of South Carolina. The American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd series, 37: 89-94.
GILL, T. 1905. Biographical memoir of John Edwards Holbrook, 1794-1871. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs 5: 47-77.
GIRARD, C., 1851. On a new American saurian reptile. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 4: 200-202.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1836-1840. North American herpetology. Four vols. J. Dobson, Philadelphia.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1842. North American herpetology. Second edition. Five vols. J. Dobson, Philadelphia. (Facsimile reprint edition, 1976. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Athens, Ohio.)
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1847. Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina Georgia and Florida. No. II. Pp. 1-32. Wiley & Putnam, New York & London.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1848. Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. No. III. Pp. 33-60. Wiley & Putnam, New York & London.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1849. “Reptiles” and “Fish,” pp. 13-15 and 16-19, appendix, in WHITE, G. Statistics of the State of Georgia: including an account of its natural, civil and ecclesiastical history. W. Thorne Williams, Savannah.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1855a. An account of several species of fish observed in Florida, Georgia, & c. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 2nd series, 3 (1): 47-58, plates 5 & 6.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1855b. Ichthyology of South Carolina. John Russell, Charleston, pp. 1-184, 27 color plates.
HOLBROOK, J. E. 1860. Ichthyology of South Carolina. Second edition. Russell and Jones, Charleston, pp. i-viii + 1-205, 28 color plates.
HOOLE, W. S. 1962. Introduction (pp. 9-37) to A visit to the Confederate States of America in 1863: Memoir addressed to His Majesty Napoleon III by Charles Girard, 1864. Translated and edited with an Introduction by Wm. Stanley Hoole. Confederate Centennial Studies, No. 21. Confederate Publishing Company, Inc., Tuscaloosa, Alabama, pp. 1-126.
IRMSCHER, C. 2013. Louis Agassiz: Creator of American science. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, New York, pp. i-xiv + 1-434.
IUCN, 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded 13 August 2014.
JACKSON, J. R. & KIMLER, W. C. 1999. Taxonomy and the personal equation: The historical fates of Charles Girard and Louis Agassiz. Journal of the History of Biology 32: 509-555.
KELLS, V. & CARPENTER, K. 2011. A field guide to coastal fishes from Maine to Texas. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 1-446, many colour figs.
MARCY, B. C., JR., FLETCHER, D. E., MARTIN, F. D., PALLER, M. H. & REICHERT, M. J. M. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. The University of Georgia Press, Athens and London, pp. i-xviii + 1-462, many colour figs.
MCBRIDE R. S. & HORODYSKY, A. J. 2004. Mechanisms maintaining sympatric distributions of two ladyfish (Elopidae: Elops) morphs in the Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (4): 1173-1181.
MCBRIDE, R. S., ROCHA, C. R., RUIZ-CARUS, R. & BOWEN, B. W. 2010. A new species of ladyfish of the genus Elops (Elopiformes: Elopidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa 2346: 29-41.
MURDY, E. O. & MUSICK, J. A. 2013. Field guide to fishes of the Chesapeake Bay. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. i-xiv + 1-346, many text figs.
PAGE, L. M. & BURR, B. M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, New York, pp. i-xxiii + 1-663, 57 plates., 64 figs., many maps.
PAGE, L. M., ESPINOSA-PÉREZ, H., FINDLEY, L. T., GILBERT, C. R., LEA, R. N., MANDRAK, N. E., MAYDEN, R. L. & NELSON, J. S. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexi co, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland, pp. i-x + 1-384.
ROBINS, C. R. & RAY, G. C. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Field Guide Series 32. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, pp. i-xiv + 1-354, 64 plates.
ROHDE, F. C., ARNDT, R. G., FOLTZ, J. W. & QUATTRO, J. M. 2009. Freshwater fishes of South Carolina. The Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science, No. 22. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp. i-xxvi + 1-430, many color figs., maps.
RUTLEDGE, A. W. 1949. Artists in the life of Charleston: Through colony and state from restoration to Reconstruction. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 39, Part 2: 101-250.
SANDERS, A. E. & ANDERSON, W. D., JR. 1999. Natural history investigations in South Carolina from colonial times to the present. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp. i-xl, + 1-333, 1 color plate, 66 figs.
SMITH, C.L. 1997. National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Chanticleer Press Inc., New York, pp. 1-720, 417 color plates.
SMITH-VANIZ, W. F. & COLLETTE, B. B. 2013. Fishes of Bermuda. aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology 19 (4): 165-186, 36 figs.
SMITH-VANIZ, W. F., COLLETTE, B. B. & LUCKHURST, B. E. 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: History, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. Allen Press Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, pp. i-x + 1-424, 12 color plates, 127 figs.
STEPHENS, L. D. 1997. John Edwards Holbrook (1794-1871) and Lewis Reeve Gibbes (1810-1894): Exemplary naturalists in the Old South. Pp. 447-458. In: Collection building in ichthyology and herpetology. Eds. Pietsch, T. W. and Anderson, W. D., Jr. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication No. 3. Lawrence, Kansas.
STEPHENS , L. D. 2000. Science, race, and religion in the American South: John Bachman and the Charleston circle of naturalists, 1815–1895. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill & London, pp. i-xx + 1-338. [Dated 2000, but published in November 1999.]
WORTHINGTON, R. D. & WORTHINGTON, P. H. 1976. John Edwards Holbrook, father of American herpetology. Pp. xiii-xxvii. In: Holbrook, J. E., North American herpetology. Ed. Adler, K. [Facsimile reprint edition, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Athens, Ohio.]