The sunfish Mola mola as an attachment surface for the Lepadid Cirriped Lepas anatifera – a previously unreported association
João Pedro Barreiros and Manuel Teves
aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, pp. 1-4, Volume 10, Issue 1 – June 2005
On the 14th September 2004 a stranded sunfish (Mola mola) was found on the south coast of Terceira Island, Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic). Whilst examining its mouth for the possible presence of plastic debris, we discovered a live colony of the cirriped Lepas anatifera attached to the anterior portion of the sunfish’s oesophagus. This previously undescribed association expands the ecological niches exploited by goose barnacles with apparent advantages such as a regular intake of food and protection both from hydrodynamic hazards and from predators.
Arnould, J. P. & J. P. Croxall. 1995. Trends in entanglement of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) in man-made debris at South Georgia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30: 707-712.
Barreiros, J. P. & J. Barcelos. 2001. Plastic ingestion by a leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42 (11): 1196-1197.
Carr, A. 1987. Impact of non-degradable marine debris on the ecology and survival outlook of sea turtles. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18: 352-356.
Debrot, A. O., Bradshaw, J. E. & A. B. Tiel. 1995. Tar contamination on beaches in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30: 689- 693.
Minchin, D. 1996. Tar pellets and plastics as attachment surfaces for lepadid cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 32 (12): 855-859.
Santos, R. S., Porteiro, F. M. & J. P Barreiros. 1997. Marine Fishes of the Azores. Annotated Checklist And Bibliography. Arquipélago. Life And Marine Sciences Supplement 1, xxi + 225p. Tortonese, E. 1986. Molidae. Pp. 1248-1350 in: Whitehead, P. J. P.; Bauchot, M.-L.; Hureau, J.-C.;
Nielsen, J. & E. Tortonese (Eds.) Fishes of the North-east Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Vol. III. UNESCO. Paris.
Ryan, P. G., Connell, A. D. & B. D. Gardner. 1988. Plastic ingestion and PCBs in seabirds: is there a relationship? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 19: 174-176.
Wirtz, P. 1995. Unterwasserführer Madeira, Kanaren, Azoren. Niedere Tiere. Delius Klasing, Ed. Naglschmid, Stuttgart, 247pp.